Sabtu, 30 Maret 2013

Characteristics of Breast Cancer in women and how to solve it

Breast cancer is a disease caused by the growth of cancer cells in the breast area. This disease mostly affects women, but men can also be affected. Breast cancer is a type of cancer with the second highest number of sufferers in the world. While the rate of death, type of cancer is the fifth largest cause of death in the world.
Early signs of breast cancer is a lump that feels different from the discovery of the breast. If pressed, the lump is not painful. Initially these bumps are small, but gradually enlarged and finally attached to the skin or cause changes in the skin of the breast or nipple.
Here among other things you should consider that a symptom of breast cancer:
a lump in your breast change shape / size
breast skin changes color: from pink to brown to orange peel
into the nipple (retraction)
one of your nipples suddenly loose / missing
when the tumor is large, the pain appeared relapsing-remitting
Breast skin feels like fire
breast bleed or other fluids, but you do not breastfeed
Signs of breast cancer is the most obvious is the presence of ulcers (ulcers) in the breast. Over time, these ulcers will become increasingly large and deep so as to destroy the whole breast. Other symptoms include breast often foul smelling and bleed easily.
As for the symptoms of advanced breast cancer, here is a quote from Wikipedia:
there is extensive edema in the skin of the breast (over 1/3 area of ​​the skin of breast);
satellite nodules on the skin of the breast;
Breast cancer is the type of mastitis karsinimatosa;
There parasternal models;
There supraclavicular nodules;
arm edema;
presence of distant metastases;
and there are two of these signs locally advanced, namely skin ulceration, skin edema, skin fixed to the thoracic wall, axillary lymph node 2.5 cm in diameter, and axillary lymph nodes attached to each other.
A number sign above is indeed a characteristic of breast cancer. However, if you experience one or more of the above, you are not necessarily suffering from breast cancer. Try to consult your doctor and do mammography test. Later the doctor will analyze mammograms produced and provided suggestions for you.
drinking alcohol and smoking
use of estrogen (eg on estrogen replacement therapy users)
Lots of fat and less fiber
Age, disease increases breast cancer at young age and above.
Genetic, There are 2 types of genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) that Sagat might as risk. If the mother or female relatives of breast cancer, then you likely have an increased risk of breast cancer 2-fold compared to other women in her family had not had a single patient.
The use of drugs, for example a woman who uses hormone replacement therapy drugs {hormone replacement therapy (HRT)} as exogenous hormones can cause increased risk of getting breast cancer.
Other factors suspected as a cause of breast cancer are: not married, married but no children, had their first child after age 35 years, never feed a child.
Several studies reveal that breast cancer is increased in people who often face stressful conditions (shocks residents) and also for women who menstruate earlier under the age of 11 years.
obesity in women after menopause: a diet effect on the malignancy of cancer cells
Activity repeal and shave her armpits will cause many injuries invisible and also make pores armpit area will be enlarged. These wounds will facilitate the emergence of diseases such as inflammation, swelling or pus and become infected. This allows toxins and chemicals easily penetrate the skin allowing the occurrence of breast cancer.
In conducting the treatment of breast cancer, a doctor may consider a variety of factors, including:
1. Cancer staging
O - called non-invasive breast cancer. There are 2 types, namely DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ) and LCIS (lobular carcinoma in situ)
I - a small invasive cancer (tumor size smaller than 2 cm and not invaded the lymph nodes)
II - Invasive cancer (tumor size 2-5 cm and have invaded the lymph nodes)
III - large invasive cancer (tumor size> 5 cm and lump protruding into the surface of the skin, cracked or bleeding / pus
IV - Cancer cells have bermetastesis / spread to other organs such as the lungs, liver, bone or brain
2. Grade cancer
Rank is G1, G2 and G3. Grade 3 is a ranking of the most aggressive and most poor recovery outcomes.
3. The state of estrogen receptors (Estrogen Receptor-ER)
If ER positive cancer cells may respond to hormone therapy such as tamoxifen.
4. Specific conditions related to the patient, such as:
- Age of patients and the general health condition
- Already menopause or not
The main goal of cancer treatment in the early stages (primary) is to remove the tumor and tissue surrounding the tumor. Radiation therapy can be done in certain circumstances.
In general, the smaller the tumor the doctor will usually recommend surgery.
The types of surgery:
Lumpectomy (Surgical removal of the tumor and surrounding tissue). For DCIS and invasive cancer, usually followed by radiation therapy
Total mastectomy (surgical removal of the entire breast), but not including the lymph nodes under the armpit
Breast reconstruction (artificial breast) can be considered for women who underwent total mastectomy.
And Neo-Adjuvant Therapy Adjuvant
Next step in dealing with cancer aims to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence or spread. It should be understood that even in awalpun stage breast cancer can spread. Usually the doctor will recommend additional therapy. Called adjuvant therapy when performed post-surgery and is called neo-adjuvant therapy when performed prior to surgery.
Most of systemic adjuvant therapy, which works through the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. Adjuvant therapy for breast cancer may include chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy with the drug trastuzumab (Herceptin ®), radiotherapy, or a combination of the above.
Adjuvant Chemotherapy
Studies have shown that adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer helped to prevent the cancer from returning. Usually, more than one drug is given during adjuvant chemotherapy (called combination chemotherapy). For example, among others:
- CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-FU)
- FAC (5-Fu, Doxorubicin, cyclophosmide)
- TAC (docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide)
- GT (gemcitabine and paclitaxel)
- Etc.
Hormone Therapy
Aiming to suppress estrogen production that are necessary for tumor development.
a.Obat tamoxifen:
The way it works is to inhibit the activity of estrogen in the body. Tamoxifen can be administered to premenopausal and postmenopausal women.
b. Drug Aromatase Inhibitor (AI)
The way it works is to prevent the body from making estrogen. Can be used by postmenopausal women after tamoxifen treatment or as a substitute for tamoxifen therapy. Not very effective for premenopausal women.
Targeted Therapy
a. Trastuzumab (Herceptin ®)
Drug is a monoclonal antibody therapeutic target given by intravenous infusion. Therapy is aimed at growth pemelopor proteins, known as HER2. Estimated that approximately 20% of breast cancer patients are HER2 positive. HER2 positive breast cancers tend to grow and spread more aggressively. It should be noted that in very rare cases, Trastuzumab can cause heart problems. The risk of heart problems is higher when trastuzumab is given with certain chemotherapy drugs such as doxorubicin (adriamycin) and epirubicin (Ellence).
b. Lapatinib (Tykerb):
Targeted drug therapy is aimed at HER2 protein. Currently its use is only granted in cases of advanced breast cancer, and is usually given in conjunction with the chemotherapy drug capecitabine (Xeloda).
c. Bevacizumab (Avastin ®)
Is a monoclonal antibody that can be used in breast cancer patients who had bermetastesis. These antibodies are directed against a protein that helps tumors form new blood vessels. Bevacizumab is given by intravenous infusion. Often combined with the chemotherapy drug paclitaxel (Taxol).
Radiotherapy is usually given after surgery locally and can be given after mastectomy. For women at high risk, your doctor may use radiation therapy after mastectomy to kill cancer cells that may remain in the breast tissue, such as the chest wall or lymph nodes nearby.
For those of you who feel there are things that look different on the breast, get it checked by a doctor not to be late. For example, the next enlargement, the surrounding breast lump, pain constantly on the nipple and so on as the information signs and symptoms of breast above.
Other actions you can do are:
Avoid obesity,
Eat less fat,
consumption of fish oil on a regular basis because it can reduce the risk of breast cancer by a third,
Try lots of foods that contain vitamin A and C,
Do not eat too much of marinated and smoked,
Exercise regularly, and
Check-up breasts since the age of 30 years on a regular basis.